Although they can look similar, there are many differences between these vegetables. A swede/rutabaga is a winter vegetable and belongs to the brassica (cabbage) family. Swede grows underground and has a green-yellow or yellow-purple skin. The skin of swede is quite hard. Swede is much larger than kohlrabi. You can stew or boil a turnip, which suits its mild, sweet flavour.
Confusingly, swede is often referred to as turnip in Scotland and parts of Northern England, whereas turnip describes white turnip in the rest of the UK.
Kohlrabi is not a winter vegetable. Kohlrabi is available mainly during spring. The skin of kohlrabi can be light-green or blue-purple in colour.
On the inside, kohlrabi is white-yellow in colour. Kohlrabi tastes like the stem of broccoli or cauliflower. Kohlrabi is fine to eat (peeled) raw, as well as cooked. Kohlrabi are usually a lot smaller than swede, and often have some small stems and leaves. Note: The photo accompanying this explanation shows a kohlrabi.
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